The envelope only determines speed at which the different stages occur.
Depth determines how intense or how far the filter moves during those stages
A, D, R are purely time related. Sustain is kind of depth-related so ignore that for now.
Attack is how long it takes to go from the initial starting point of a closed filter, to a completely open filter.
Decay happens immediately after attack, as long as the note is still being played, and sets how long the filter takes to drop back down to closed (or to whatever level you have Sustain set at, that’s like a “stop point” to keep it from closing all the way)
Release is similar to Decay but only happens when you stop playing the note. It’s how long it takes to from whatever current level the filter is at, back down to closed.
To mimic envelope settings of Attack 100, Decay 100, start with your filter turned all the way down to 0. Then start turning the filter knob SLOWLY to open it. Once you hit max, immediately start turning it SLOWLY, the same speed, back to 0.
That is a slow attack, slow decay, with 100% depth.
To mimic a 12 attack, 60 decay like in an example you gave above, you would turn the filter from 0 to 100 fairly quickly… pretty much as fast as you can. Then as soon as you hit max, start turning it slowly back to 0.
NOW ABOUT DEPTH
Depth only determines HOW FAR you’ll turn the filter knob. Not how fast.
With a depth of around 64, you might only turn the knob halfway. But you would still turn it at the same SPEED as above, set by the envelope. EDIT: Correcting myself here, actually I think you would physically turn it slower, because you have less distance to travel, but would still have to fill in the same amount of time as the “full depth” above. So if it took 2 seconds to go from 0 to 100 before, now with a 50% depth it still needs to take 2 seconds to go from 0 to 50, so you actually turn it slower, but the TOTAL TIME it takes to reach “point B” (the depth level), is the same. I think this is correct? This isn’t the best thing to wake up to with no coffee…
With a depth of 10, you would barely turn it at all, but again, still at the same speed set by the envelope.
As for how actual numbers correspond to a human turning the filter knob by hand, nobody is gonna have that answer and you’re gonna have to figure it out yourself. Just set the ASDR, listen to it, then try to mimic that by hand. Hopefully the info given above will help with that.
All of the above is assuming a “starting point” of a completely closed filter.
If you start with your filter at 50% already, then depth will only be setting the range between that 50% mark up to the 100% mark or anywhere in between.
A NEGATIVE depth will make it drop below that 50% mark (or where you happen to have the filter set to)
ENVELOPE/ADR = TIME, how long it takes to turn the knob from point A to point B.
DEPTH = DISTANCE, how far to turn the knob, whether you turn the knob all the way (100% depth), or halfway, etc.